man relaxing in air conditioning

How Does an Air Conditioner Work?

Summer has arrived with record highs across the country, and with the vast majority of homes having some type of air conditioner, it’s the best way to get out of the heat. As you are relaxing in your comfortably cool home or office, thankful that your air conditioner works, let’s gain some insight at how a normal central heating and cooling system works.

The Basics

Your air conditioner works the same way as your refrigerator, but obviously rather than keeping a single space cool, it has to cool your entire home. Both use a refrigerant that converts easily from liquid to gas, back to liquid again. In your air conditioner, the refrigerant is on a constant loop from the outdoors to the inside of your home. It goes into the home as a sub-cooled liquid that evaporates and gathers or absorbs heat from your indoor air, expands back into vapor, then back to the outside condensing unit where it dissipates the heat and is switched back to a sub-cooled liquid.

The Components

Your AC system is created out of four main pieces: an evaporator coil, a compressor, a condensing coil, and an expansion valve or metering device.

The piece where your refrigerant evaporates from a sub-cooled liquid to a super-heated vapor is called the evaporator coil, which may be inside, in your attic, or in your garage. As warm indoor air is blown across the cold evaporator coil, heat is removed from the air…and the cooled air is blown within your home.

From the evaporator coil, the now super-heated vapor refrigerant goes back to the compressor located in your outdoor condensing unit. The compressor increases the pressure of the vapor until it turns into a hot, high pressure vapor. The now super-hot vapor meets the condenser coil where less hot air blows across the coil, moving heat to the outdoors, and switches the refrigerant to a sub-cooled liquid. The sub-cooled liquid refrigerant is returned to the indoor evaporator coil where, through an expansion valve or metering device, the process is redone.

Your air conditioner is a constant loop of physics at work. We know the important thing to you isn’t really how it works, but that it’s functioning the right way. If you’d like to talk science or just about keeping cool, giving our professionals a call at 973-884-0065 or set up an appointment with us online. We will work with you and the laws of physics to keep you cool this time around.